20 Jul, 21
Thyroid Disorders – Types, Symptoms, and Treatments
Last Updated: 20 Jul, 21 / By: REYO
What is Thyroid Gland?
It is a butterfly-shaped gland located in your neck that produces thyroid hormones. It plays a major role in many of your body processes as regulating body metabolism, controlling your menstrual cycle, etc.,
Thyroid Disorder and its Types
When the thyroid gland releases too much or too little amount of hormones, it causes thyroid disorders. Two main types of thyroid disorders are
When the thyroid gland doesn’t release enough amounts of thyroid hormones, it is called hypothyroidism. An insufficient amount of thyroid hormones slows down some of your body processes. This condition is also referred to as an underactive thyroid.
Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism:
- Weight gain
- Prolonged menstruation
- Heavy menstrual bleeding
- Hoarse voice
- Cold sensitivity
- Dry skin
An excess amount of thyroid hormones are released by the thyroid gland is called hyperthyroidism. It is also referred to as an overactive thyroid. It speeds up some of your body processes.
Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism:
- Eating disorder
- Weight loss
- Abnormal sweating
- Sleeping difficulty
- Nervousness and anxiety
- Trembling and muscle weakness
- Irregular menstruation
- Eye problems
- Lack of concentration
- Heart rate is fast
Conditions Causing Thyroid Disorders
- Thyroid nodules
- Thyroid cancer
Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland. It occurs due to bacterial or viral infection and autoimmune diseases. This condition leads to hypothyroidism. There are two types of thyroiditis as,
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis – In this condition thyroid is damaged by the body cells.
- Postpartum thyroiditis – This condition occurs in women after giving birth.
It is a condition where one side of the thyroid gland is swollen. The nodule may be fluid or blood-filled or it may be solid. It leads to hyperthyroidism. These nodules are non-cancerous.
In this condition, thyroid glands are enlarged, but it is non-cancerous. It leads to both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. The common cause of goiter is iodine deficiency.
When the cancer cells are formed around the tissues of the thyroid gland it is called thyroid cancer. It also has a lump or nodule which may or may not be cancerous. It can be identified through proper diagnosis.
Thyroid Disorders and Pregnancy
The thyroid hormone plays a major role in pregnancy by helping with the baby’s brain and nervous system development. During pregnancy hCG and estrogen hormones increases the level of thyroid hormone. Abnormal levels of thyroid hormone cause an irregular menstrual cycle that affects the ovulation process. When ovulation is affected it makes pregnancy difficult.
If hypothyroidism in pregnancy is not diagnosed and treated, it may cause miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, preeclampsia (high blood pressure and kidney problems), heart rate will be faster than usual for a newborn and thyroid storm.
If hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is not diagnosed and treated, the causes will be the same as hypothyroidism. In addition to that, it may also cause anemia and abnormal brain development of the baby.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid disorders can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging and physical exams.
The doctor will provide treatments for hypothyroidism to increase the hormone levels upto normal. Treatment involves thyroid replacement medications as Levothyroxine, Synthroid, etc.,
In this condition, treatment mainly focuses on decreasing thyroid hormone levels. Hyperthyroidism treatment involves radioactive iodine, anti-thyroid drugs, beta-blockers and surgery called thyroidectomy.
Diets for Thyroid Disorders
Hypothyroidism usually has a slower process of metabolism. So, the Hypothyroidism diet should improve the body’s metabolism. Nutrient as zinc and selenium rich foods and supplements helps with hypothyroidism.
- Egg yolk contains selenium and zinc
- All kind of meats and seafood
- Fruits and vegetables
- Whole grains and seeds
- Dairy products
- Low-carb diet
Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) is a condition where thyroid hormone levels are higher. Hyperthyroidism diet focuses on reducing thyroid hormone levels.
- Salt that has no iodine
- Egg white
- Fruits and vegetables
- Unsalted butter
- Nuts and seeds
- Meat and fish
- Calcium-rich diet